Universal Design

 Principle   Definition  Examples
Principle 1: Equitable Use Instruction is designed to be useful to and accessible by people with diverse abilities.  Provide the same means of use for all students; identical whenever possible, equivalent when not. Provide links to online supports and resources so all students can access materials as needed regardless of varying academic preparation, need for review of content, distance from campus, etc.
Principle 2: Flexibility in use Instruction is designed to accommodate a wide range of individual abilities.  Provide choice in methods of use.  Use of varied instructional methods (lecture with a visual outline, group activities, use of stories, or web board/chat discussions to provide different ways of learning and experiencing knowledge.
Principle 3: Simple and Intuitive Instruction is designed in a straightforward and predictable manner, regardless of the student's experience, knowledge, language skills, or current concentration level.  Eliminate unnecessary complexity.  Provision of a grading rubric for papers or projects to clearly lay out expectations for performance.
Principle 4: Perceptible information Instruction is designed so that necessary information is communicated effectively to the student, regardless of ambient conditions or the student's sensory abilities. Selection of text books, reading material, and other instructional supports in digital format or online so students with diverse needs (e.g., vision, learning, attention, ESL) can access materials through traditional hard copy or with the use of various technological supports (e.g. screen reader, text enlarger, on-line dictionary).
Principle 5: Tolerance for error Instruction anticipates variation in individual student learning pace and prerequisite skills. Allow students to use a word processor for writing and editing papers or essay exams.
Principle 6: Low physical effort Instruction is designed to minimize nonessential physical effort in order to allow maximum attention to learning. 
Note: This principle does not apply when physical effort is integral to essential requirements of a course.
Allow students to use a word processor for writing and editing papers or essay exams.
Principle 7: Size and space for approach and use Instruction is designed with consideration for appropriate size and space for approach, reach, manipulations, and use regardless of a student's body size, posture, mobility, and communication needs.  In small class settings, use of a circular seating arrangement to allow students to see and face speakers during discussion - importance of students with attention deficit disorder or who are deaf or hard of hearing.
Principle 8: A community of learners The instructional environment promotes interaction and communication among students and between students and faculty. Fostering communication among students in and out of class by structuring study groups, discussion groups, e-mail lists, or chat rooms.
Principle 9: Instructional Climate Instruction is designed to be welcoming and inclusive.  High expectations are espoused for all students.  A statement in the class syllabus affirming the need for class members to respect diversity in order to establish the expectation of tolerance as well as encourage students to discuss any special learning needs with the instructor.

Source: From Principles of Universal Design for Instruction by Sally Scott, Joan McGuire and Stan Shaw,  Center on Postsecondary Education and Disability, University of Connecticut.  Copyright 2001. Reprinted with permission.